China is a large agricultural country with a large population, little arable land, shortage of water resources, frequent floods and droughts, special climate, geography and other natural and social conditions determine that China's agriculture must follow the development path of irrigated agriculture.
Spring and Autumn Period and Warring States Period
my country is the first country in the world to engage in agriculture and build water conservancy. As early as 5,000 years ago, in the era of Dayu, there were contents of farmland water conservancy such as "doing our best to cover the ditch", "improving the nine lakes and enriching the nine bushes". During the period, ditches were arranged in well fields for irrigation and drainage facilities. In the Western Zhou Dynasty, there were already many small irrigation projects in the Guanzhong area of the middle reaches of the Yellow River. For example, it is recorded in "The Book of Songs, Xiaoya? , soaking the other rice fields". It means that the muddy water from the tributaries of the Weihe River is used to irrigate the rice fields. The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period were a period of transformation from a slave society to a feudal society in China. Due to the increase in productivity, a large amount of land was reclaimed, and irrigation and drainage developed accordingly. Famous ones, such as Ximenbao of the Wei State built the Twelve Canals in Ye County (now Linzhang, Hebei Province) to irrigate farmland and improve saline-alkali land, Chu State built the water storage and irrigation project Shaopi in Shou County, Anhui Province, and Li Bing, the governor of Shu County in the Qin State, presided over the construction Dujiangyan has made the Chengdu Plain a "Land of Abundance" where "thousands of miles of fertile fields and floods and droughts follow people".8066 metal spray gun impact sprinkler with a range of 16-29m
Qin and Han Dynasties
The Qin and Han Dynasties were the first period of national unity and prosperity in China, and also the first period of great development of irrigation and drainage projects. Especially the water conservancy construction in the early Western Han Dynasty greatly promoted the social and economic development at that time. Zheng Guoqu (built in 246 B.C.) was an irrigation project built before Qin Shihuang unified the six kingdoms. At that time, it was said to irrigate 40,000 hectares of fields, making the Guanzhong area the earliest basic economic zone in my country. Therefore, "Qin became prosperous and strong, and died and merged with the princes." During the reign of Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty, the Canal for water transportation and irrigation was diverted from the Wei River. Later, the Longshou Canal was built to divert the Beiluo River, the Bai Canal to divert the Jing Water, and the Chengguo Canal to divert the Wei River for irrigation. In addition to the construction of irrigation projects in the Weihe and Fenhe valleys in the center of the Han Dynasty, some large-scale water diversion projects were also built in the Hexi Corridor and the Yellow River Hetao area in the northwest frontier in order to consolidate border defense and station troops for reclamation.
Sui, Tang and Northern Song Dynasties
The second development period of irrigation and drainage engineering in China is from the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Northern Song Dynasty. In the early years of the Tang Dynasty, Chang’an was established as the capital, and the Guanzhong irrigation and drainage project was vigorously developed. After the Anshi Rebellion, a large number of people moved to the south, and the farmland water conservancy projects in Jiangsu and Zhejiang developed rapidly. universal. At the same time, water-lifting tools have also been improved and promoted, expanding the irrigated area of farmland. By the late Tang Dynasty, the tax revenue of the Taihu Lake area had surpassed that of the Yellow River Basin, becoming a new basic economic area. By the Northern Song Dynasty, the proportion of the population in the Yangtze River Basin to the national population had risen from less than 20% in the Western Han Dynasty to more than 40%. Song Shenzong supported Wang Anshi's reform and promulgated the "Farmland Interest Treaty" (also known as "Farmland Water Conservancy Constraint"), which was the first farmland water conservancy decree officially promulgated by the central government. , so that the construction of farmland water conservancy has been further developed. After the Southern Song Dynasty moved to the south of the Yangtze River, it further promoted the development of water conservancy in the south of the Yangtze River. Not only the water conservancy in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces has made great progress, but also the southeast coast and the Pearl River Delta water conservancy construction has also begun to develop.
Ming and Qing Dynasties
The Ming and Qing dynasties were the third development period of irrigation and drainage engineering in the history of our country. During this period, the national population grew considerably, from more than 50 million in the Yuan Dynasty to 90 million in the Ming Dynasty, more than 100 million in the Kangxi period of the Qing Dynasty, and 400 million by the end of the Qing Dynasty. The population has increased more than 7 times in more than 500 years. With the growth of population, the area of arable land and yield per mu must be expanded and increased accordingly. Therefore, the great development of water conservancy has also been promoted. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the water conservancy in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River has been extensively developed. In the Dongting Lake area alone, there were 200 embankments in the Ming Dynasty and 400 to 500 in the Qing Dynasty. Become another basic economic zone of the country. At the same time, the Pearl River Basin in the south, the Beijing-Tianjin region in the north, and the northwestern and southwestern frontier areas all had great development in irrigation; the Songliao Plain in the northeast also developed irrigation and drainage projects after the emigration ban was lifted in the middle of the Qing Dynasty.
late 19th century
After the mid-19th century, due to the invasion of imperialism, my country became a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society. Although water conservancy developed in some areas during this period, it generally declined day by day. In the late 19th century, due to the introduction of modern western science and technology to China, a group of water conservancy scholars returned from abroad to open water conservancy schools and spread advanced science and technology. In 1914, my country's first water conservancy college - Hohai Engineering College was established in Nanjing. After 1917, the Yangtze River, the Yellow River and other river basins successively set up water conservancy institutions to carry out planning and engineering design of water conservancy development in the basin. In 1930, Mr. Li Yizhi presided over the construction of Jinghui Canal in Shaanxi Province with modern technology, and then successively built irrigation areas such as Weihui Canal and Luohui Canal.